Scientific Research

Female Health

Women and Omega-3

Author(s): Saldeen P, Saldeen T.
Title: 117. Women and omega-3 (English)
Source: Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2004 Oct;59: 722-30, 2004.

Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FA) are constituents of the membranes of all cells in the body and are precursors of locally produced hormones, eicosanoids, which are important in the prevention and treatment of various diseases, especially in women. Omega-3 FA are of interest in some of the most common conditions affecting women. One mechanism underlying dysmenorrhea is a disturbed balance between antiinflammatory, vasodilator eicosanoids derived from omega-3 FA and proinflammatory, vasoconstrictor eicosanoids derived from omega-6 FA. Increased intake of omega-3 FA can reverse the symptoms in this condition by decreasing the amount of omega-6 FA in cell membranes. An increased prostacyclin/thromboxane ratio induced by omega-3 FA can facilitate pregnancy in women with infertility problems by increasing uterine blood flow. Supplementation with omega-3 FA during pregnancy lowers the risk of premature birth and can increase the length of pregnancy and birth weight by altering the balance of eicosanoids involved in labor and promote fetal growth by improving placental blood flow. Intake of omega-3 FA during pregnancy and breast feeding may facilitate the child's brain development. There is also some evidence that supplementation with omega-3 FA might help to prevent preeclampsia, postpartum depression, menopausal problems, postmenopausal osteoporosis, and breast cancer. Furthermore, because elevated triglyceride levels are associated with cardiovascular disease, especially in women; and because omega-3 FA have powerful effects on triglycerides, women in particular gain from an increased intake of these fatty acids. This is especially important in women receiving hormone therapy, which can increase triglyceride levels. The quality of the omega-3 FA preparation is important. It should have an appropriate antioxidant content not to induce lipid peroxidation, and its content of dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) should be well below the established safe limit.

Download full article: Women_and_Omega-3_Fatty_Acids


Cardiovascular Health


Effects of a new fluid fish oil concentrate, ESKIMO®-3, on triglycerides, cholesterol, fibrinogen and blood pressure

J Intern Med. 1990 May;227(5):347-53.Effects of a new fluid fish oil concentrate, ESKIMO®-3, on triglycerides, cholesterol, fibrinogen and blood pressure.

Authors: Haglund O, Wallin R, Luostarinen R, Saldeen T.


Eskimos have a very low incidence of cardiovascular disease, at least in part due to a high intake of n-3 fatty acids. ESKIMO-3is a new stabilized (insensitive to oxidation) fluid fish oil concentrate, 30 ml of which contains an amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and total n-3 fatty acids equivalent to the daily intake among Eskimos. Thirty-three volunteers, healthy or with coronary artery disease, were given ESKIMO-3, at a dose of 15 or 30 ml d-1, corresponding to 2.7 or 5.4 g of eicosapentaenoic acid d-1, or placebo oil, for a period of up to 6 months. ESKIMO-3 had a pronounced dose-dependent effect on several risk factors for coronary artery disease. Intake of one tablespoon (15 ml) daily for 6 months significantly reduced levels of triglycerides (-64%), total cholesterol (-8%), plasma fibrinogen (-23%) and diastolic blood pressure (-9%). Bleeding time was unchanged. Intake of two tablespoons daily for 4 weeks increased plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels by 490%, and decreased arachidonic acid by 20%. The HDL concentration increased by 21%. No change in the above mentioned variables was observed after intake of placebo oil.

PMID: 2341828

Download full article- Eskimo-3 effect on cardiovascular system

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Children's Health

Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in children.

Author(s): Saldeen A-S, Saldeen T.
Title: Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in children. (English)
Source: Reprint in English from 2002 article in Medikament journal, 2003.


During recent years a large number of studies have shown the importance of intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the health of children. This is true especially for long-chain, markedly bent, highly unsaturated fatty acids, LC-PUFA. ln this article Ann-Sofie Saldeen, MD, The National University Hospital (Rigshospitalet), Copenhagen, Denmark and Professor Tom Saldeen, MD, PhD, University of Uppsala, Sweden present a review concerning the importance of these fatty acids for the health of children and the development of the brain.

Download full article -  Eskimo Kids Study

Eskimo Kids: Bioavailability, consumer accept and effect - a pilot study in 133 children for 4 months.

Author(s): Krabbe Logan V, Lydeking-Olsen E, Saldeen T.
Title: Eskimo Kids: Bioavailability, consumer accept and effect - a pilot study in 133 children for 4 months. (English)

113 children, age 1-15 (mean 7.5) years participated, 53 boys and 60 girls They were given 5 ml Eskimo Kids daily for 4 months. The test group consisted of normal, healthy children and children with learning ability problems, memory problems, hyperactivity, asthma, allergy, exzema and dry skin. Total omega-3 fatty acids in the blood increased by 56%, EPA by 138% and DHA by 50%. Of the children with memory problems 58% improved, whereas 69 % of the children with hyperactivity problems improved. Of the children with learning ability problems (mathematics) 70% improved, whereas 40% of those with reading problems improved. Of the children with concentration problems 50% improved. Of the children with exzema 65% improved, whereas 78% of the children with dry skin improved. Of the children with frequent upper airway infections 60% improved, wheras 69% of children with frequent throat infections improved. A fact which the investigators were very impressed with was the improved social behavior among boys 1-5 years who were regarded as “problem children” before the treatment. No serious side effects were observed.[/accordion][accordion title="The effects of fish oil supplementatation on immune function in 9 to 12 old infants. (English)

Author(s): Damsgaard CT, Lauritzen L, Kjær TMR, Michaelsen KF, Frøkiær H.
Title: 127. The effects of fish oil supplementatation on immune function in 9 to 12 old infants. (English)
Source: ISSFAL meeting, Australia. Abstract, 2006.

Background: n-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are thought to affect immune function and may affect immune maturation in early life. Objective - To examine if fish oil supplementation in late infancy could modify immune function. Design - A 2×2 intervention with fish oil (3.4 ± 1.1 ml/day) or no fish oil and cow’s milk or infant formula from 9 to 12 month of age in 64 healthy Danish infants. Before and after the intervention we measured the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte (RBC) membranes, plasma IgE levels, C-reactive protein and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (sIL-2R) as well as cytokine production in whole-blood cultures stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/phytohaemaglutinin (PHA) or Lactobacillus paracasei for 22 h. IgA was measured in feces at 10 months of age. Results - Fish oil supplementation effectively raised RBC n-3 PUFA (p<0.001), increased L. paracasei-induced IFN-? (p=0.05) and tended to reduce LPS/PHA-induced IL-10 (p=0.08). The fish oil intervention had no direct effects on any of the other immune parameters, but the RBC content of eicosapentaenoic acid was negatively associated with LPS/PHA-induced IL-10 (p=0.02). None of the interventions affected the percentage of infants with atopic symptoms or plasma IgE, but the study was not powered to look at atopy. Conclusions – As the capacity to produce IFN-? has been suggested as a maturation marker for the immune system in early life, the study indicates a faster immune maturation with increased consumption of n-3 LCPUFA in the infants. This may have implications for immune function later in life.